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Buradasınız >> Ana Sayfa Haberler & Makaleler Genel Lale ORTA Gender Discrimination in Football Organizations

Gender Discrimination in Football Organizations

 

Lale ORTA, Ph.D. 28 September 2012

 

Okan University, Graduate School of Applied Sciences, Department of Sport ManagementThis study has been accepted for publication as an article for International Review of Business and Social Sciences (IRBSS) Journal September 2012 Vol.1 No.10 (ISSN: 2226-4124). 

 

 

ABSTRACT

 

Women have encountered gender discrimination and inequalities throughout history; and their rights have always been less and their statuses have been considered lower in comparison with men. Despite the “Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women - CEDAW”, designed and adopted by the United Nations in 1979 in such a way as to enable women to actively participate in sports and physical education activities equally with men; equal opportunities for women in football have been created too late by the FIFA, UEFA and International Olympic Committee. Olimpiyat Oyunlarında erkek futbolu ilk kez 1908 yılında resmi olarak yer alırken, kadın futbolu Olimpiyat Oyunlarında ilk kez 1996 yılında yer almış ve erkeklerden 88 yıl sonra düzenlenmiştir.Men's football was officially included in the Olympic Games in 1908 for the first time, and the women's football was officially included in the Olympic Games in 1996 for the first time, i.e.  88 years later than men’s football organization.FIFA tarafından organize edilen Erkekler Dünya Kupası ilk kez 1930 yılında düzenlenirken, Kadınlar Dünya Kupası tam 61 yıl sonra, 1991 yılında ilk kez düzenlenmiştir.Men's World Cup was organized by FIFA in 1930 for the first time, and Women's World Cup was organized in 1991 i.e. 61 years later.Kadınlar Dünya Kupası ile erkekler Dünya Kupası organizasyonu arasında 61 yıl fark vardır.There are 61 years between Women's World Cup organizations and Men's World Cup organizations. FIFA tarafından 20 Yaş Altı erkek futbol organizasyonları ilk kez 1977 yılında yapılırken, kadınlarda ilk kez 2002 yılında düzenlenmiştir.The first Under-20 Men's Football organization was made in 1977, and the first Under-20 Women’s Football organization was made in 2002. 20 Yaş Altı kadınlar ve erkekler futbol organizasyonları arasında 25 yıl ara vardır. There are 25 years between the first Under-20 Men's Football organizations and the first Under-20 Women’s Football organizations. 17 Yaş Altı erkek futbol organizasyonları ilk kez 1985 yılında düzenlenirken, kadınlar için ilk kez 2008 yılında organize edilmiştir.The first Under-17 Men's Football organizations were made in 1985, and the first Under-17 Women’s Football organization was made in 2008.17 Yaş Altı kadınlar ve erkekler futbol organizasyonları arasında 23 yıl fark vardır. There are 23 years between the first Under-17 Men's Football organizations and the first Under-17 Women’s Football organizations.

 

The first Men's European Championship was organized by UEFA in 1958, and Women's European Championship was held in 1982. There are 24 years between the Men's and Women’s European Championship organizations. The first men's club team organization was made in 1955, and the first Women's European Championship was held 46 years later in 2001. Men’s Champions League was started by UEFA in 1992, and Women's Champions League was started in 2008, instead of Women's Cup. There are 16 years between Men’s Champions League and Women's Champions League.

 

For the first time, the Youth Olympic Football organizations were made by FIFA for both men and women in the same year, without gender discrimination. This shows the fact that today equal plans are being made for women and men organizations.

  

Keywords: FIFA, UEFA, Football Organizations, Gender Discrimination 

  

INTRODUCTION

 

The condition for a sustainable anthropocentric development is the creation of a partnership between women and men based on equality (Sport and Gender, 2005).

 

As one of the social problems, gender discrimination emerges as a discrimination against women. Women have encountered gender discrimination and inequalities throughout history. Their rights have always been less and their statuses have been considered lower in comparison with men (Demirbilek, 2007).

 

The data obtained from statistical studies shows that women are in a more disadvantaged position in terms of gender-based occupational discrimination. This adversely affects the position of women in the labor market as well as their social variables such as education, income, health, and sports; and the transfer of these adverse effects to the next generation leads to the emergence of gender inequality (Parlaktuna, 2010).

 

According to the results of the survey made, the levels and ways of the women’s participation in sports, which are lower and different in comparison with men, as well as their disadvantageous position in sports environment are attributed to many factors. These are expressed with the assertions that; intense participation in the competition sports may cause women to face problems in child rearing;  contact-based sports activities may pose danger for  women's reproductive organs and breasts; women have slimmer bone structure than that of men, and therefore the risk of injury is higher for women; intense participation in sports may cause menstrual problems leading to emotional problems; therefore women should not be included in the environments, which cause emotional and physical overstrain (Koca & Bulgu, 2005).         

 

Inequality of women before the law prompted them to claim their political rights, with intent to gain and legalize the equality (Bebel, 1978).

 

The 1st Women's Rights Convention was held in New York in 1848 In the convention attended by 260 women and 40 men, it was advocated that women should have equal rights as well as right of voting (Bensadon, 1994).

 

In many democratic communities, the requirements of women, who want to gain their legal and economic independence, was tried to be met, by means of detailed regulations intended for eliminating the unrighteousness (Bensadon, 1994).

 

In 19th century, many women acquired a distinguished position in the branch of art, literature, astronomy, mathematics, and science. In North America, they particularly come into prominence in the fields of social sciences and social innovation (Michel, 1994.)

 

Finland was the first European country that adopted the women's rights, with the Statute of the State Assembly, dated June 1, 1906. At that time, Finland was a Russian principality. With the amendment in the Constitution of Denmark in 1915, the women's right to vote was adopted in Denmark. The dictatorial regimes, which ruled in Germany and Italy during the period between the 1930s and the end of World War II in 1945, caused the women's rights to regress in these countries (Bensadon, 1994).

 

The United Nations declared the period between 1975 and 1985 as the "woman’s ten years", and took the lead for the three major international conference done in this period. The United Nations focusing on the inequality between women and men in all areas adopted the convention on the "Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women," in 1979 (Koray, 1994).

 

Clause ‘g’ of Article 10 in Section 3 of the United Nations’ Convention on the  Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women has been designed in such a way as to enable women to actively participate in sports and physical education activities equally with men (Cedaw, 1979).

 

Our study is intended for ascertaining whether there is equality between the organizations made for men’s and women’s football. In Football, the International Federation of Association Football is the most authoritative body in the organization of international matches and tournaments (Orta, 2000). Men's World Cup was organized by FIFA in 1930 for the first time, and Women's World Cup was organized in 1991 i.e. 61 years later (Orta, 2000).

 

Union European Football Association-UEFA is the most authoritative organ that organizes international football matches and tournaments in European continent. The first Men's European Championship was organized by UEFA in 1958, and Women's European Championship was organized in 1982, ie., 24 years later (Orta, Akşar, Beşiktaş, 2012).

 

METHOD    

 

In this study, analyses and examinations were made on the men’s and women’s football organizations of FIFA and UEFA, which are the governing bodies in the world football European football respectively; and some factors were discussed and compared with each other. The data obtained from the comparisons were calculated and interpreted by statistical methods. Horizontal approach was applied for comparisons. The men’s and women’s football organizations compared in horizontal approach were discussed. Accordingly, the followings comparisons were made;

-          The men's football organizations made by FIFA at the level of national teams; and  the women's football organizations made by FIFA at the level of national teams,

-          The men's football organizations made by FIFA at the level of club teams; and  the women's football organizations made by FIFA at the level of club teams

-          The men's football organizations made by UEFA at the level of national teams; and  the women's football organizations made by UEFA at the level of national teams

-          The men's football organizations made by UEFA at the level of club teams; and the women's football organizations made by UEFA at the level of club teams.

 

The data required in this study are based on printed and internet sources. For this reason, the resources related to the football organizations made by FIFA and UEFA were researched

 

 

FINDINGS

 

Football that was included in the Olympic Games in 1900 and 1904 as a demonstration sport was the first the first team sport in Olympics. The first official Olympic Football Tournament was made 1908 in London Olympics, in which eight teams competed (www.olympic.org).

 

World Cup Finals, which are organized in every four years, was held in 1930 for the first time.

FIFA U-20 World Cup was organized under the name of "World Youth Championship" in 1977, for the first time.

FIFA U-17 World Cup was organized in 1985, for the first time. And FIFA Futsal (indoor football) was organized in 1989, for the first time.

Beach football officialized in the 1990s after determination of its specific rules began to be organized under the name of “FIFA Beach Football World Cup” as from 2005, as a FIFA organization.

The organization made for the first time under the name of "King Fahd Cup" in Saudi Arabia in 1992 was included in the structure of the organization FIFA in 1995, and was named "FIFA Confederations Cup".

The first Youth Olympic Football Tournament participated by national under-17 teams and hosted by Singapore was held in 2010 (see www.fifa.com).

 

The football organizations made by FIFA at the level of men's national teams and their commencement years are shown in Table 1 and Figure 1.

 

Table  1. FIFA Men's National Team Football Organizations and Their Commencement Years

FIFA Name of the Organization

Starting the Year

Men’s Olympic Football Tournament

1908

FIFA World Cup

1930

FIFA U-20 World Cup

1977

FIFA U-17 World Cup

1985

FIFA Futsal World Cup

1989

FIFA Confederation Cup

1995

FIFA Beach Football World Cup

2005

Youth Olympic Football Tournament

2010

  

Figure 1. FIFA Men's National Team Football Organizations and Their Commencement Years

 image001

"FIFA Women's World Cup" Football held in every four years at the level of men's national teams was organized in 1991 for the first time.

Women's football was included in Olympics in Atlanta for the first time in 1996, with the participation of 8 teams.

The first biennial "FIFA U-20 Women's World Cup" and "FIFA U-20 Women's World Cup" were organized in 2002 and 2008, respectively.

The "1st Youth Olympic Games" participated by under-15 girls was organized in 2010 for the first time, and 6 teams competed (see www.fifa.com).

 

The football organizations made by FIFA at the level of women's national teams and their commencement years are shown in Table 2 and Figure 2. 

 

Table 2.  FIFA Women's National Team Football Organizations and Their   Commencement Years

 

FIFA Name of the Organization

Starting the Year

FIFA Women’s World Cup

1991

Women’s Olympic Football Tournament

1996

FIFA U-20 Women’s World Cup

2002

FIFA U-20 Women’s World Cup

2008

Youth Olympic Football Tournament

2010

  

 

Figure 2. FIFA Women's National Team Football Organizations and Their Commencement Years

 image002

 

The commencement years of the men’s and women's football organizations made by FIFA are shown in Table 3. 

 

 Table 3.  The commencement years of FIFA Men’s and Women's World Cup Organizations

Name of the Organization

Starting the Year

FIFA World Cup

1930

FIFA Women’s World Cup

1991

 

The commencement years of the men’s and women's football organizations at the level of national teams in Olympic Games are shown in Table 4.

 

Table 4. The commencement years of the men’s and women's Olympic football organizations

 Name of the Organization

Starting the Year

Men’s Olympic Football Tournament

1908

Women’s Olympic Football Tournament

1996

 

The commencement years of the FIFA U-20 men’s and women's football organizations at the level of national teams are shown in Table 5.

 

Table 5. FIFA U-20 World Cup Organizations

Name of the Organization

Starting the Year

FIFA U-20 World Cup

1977

FIFA U-20 Women’s World Cup

2002

 

The commencement years of the FIFA U-17 men’s and women's football organizations at the level of national teams are shown in Table 6.

 

Table 6.  FIFA U-17 World Cup Organizations

Name of the Organization

Starting the Year

FIFA U-17 World Cup

1985

FIFA U-17 Women’s World Cup

2008

 

The commencement years of FIFA Youth Olympic Football Organizations for national men’s and women’s teams are shown in Table 7.

 

Table 7.  The commencement years of Youth Olympic Football Tournaments

 Name of the Organization

Starting the Year

Youth Olympic Football Tournament

2010

Youth Olympic Football Tournament (young girls)

2010

 

Only two football organizations are organized by FIFA at the level of clubs. FC Blue Stars/FIFA Youth Cup organized traditionally by the club Zurich in every year since 1939, which is attended by new skilful people as candidate for professionalism in the world football was taken over by FIFA in 1991, and then it began to be organized under the name of “FIFA Youth Cup”.

FIFA Club World Cup was organized for the first time in 2000, under the name of "FIFA World Club Championship", with the participation of 6 continental champion clubs. It could not been organized between 2000 and 2005. Its name was changed to "FIFA Club World Cup (see www.fifa.com).

 

The commencement years of the football organizations for men's club teams made by FIFA are shown in Table 8 and Figure 3.

 

Table 8.  The football organizations for men's club teams made by FIFA

 Name of the Organization

Starting the Year

Blue Stars/FIFA Youth Cup

1991

FIFA Club World Cup

2000

  

Figure 3.  The organizations for men's club teams made by FIFA

 image003

As the first football organization made by UEFA in 1958 at the level of national teams, "European Cup" could not attract the expected attention in the first year due to insufficient participation. The initial name of the cup was “Henry Delaunay”, and then it was changed to "European Nations Cup", and finally to "European Football Championship" in 1965.

Since 1976, UEFA Under-23 Football Championship has been organized as "Under-21".

The name of the championship that began to be organized under the name of International Youth Football Tournament between 1948 and 1980 was changed to U-18 European Championship in 1980, and to U-19 European Championship.  

U-17 European Championship was organized in 1980 for the first time, under the name of U-16 European Championship. 

European Inter-Regional Junior Championship was organized in 1978 for the first time (see www.uefa.com).

 

The football organizations made by UEFA at the level of men's national teams and their commencement years are shown in Table 9 and Figure 4.

 

Table 9.  The football organizations of UEFA at the level of men's national teams  

 Name of the Organization

Starting the Year

UEFA European Football Championship-EURO

1958

UEFA U-23 Championship*

1967

UEFA U-21 Championship

1976

UEFA Regions’ Cup

1978

UEFA U-19 Championship

1980

UEFA U-17 Championship

1980

*Since 1976, "21 Years Old" began to be held in.

 

Figure 4.  The football organizations of UEFA at the level of men's national teams and their commencement years

 image004

The European Women's Football Competitions commenced in 1982 was named European Women's Championship in 1989. European Women's Championship organized in every four years is organized with the participation of 16 teams.

U-18 Women's Championship was organized in 1997–1998 Football Season, for the first time. Denmark was the first champion of the championship, which is held every year. In 1998-1999 football season, its name and competition format were changed, and it become U-19 (under age 19) Women’s Championship (see www.uefa.com).

 

The football organizations made by UEFA at the level of women's national teams and their commencement years are shown in Table 10 and Figure 5. 

 

Table 10.  The football organizations of UEFA at the level of women's national teams and their commencement years

 Name of the Organization

Starting the Year

UEFA Women’s European Football Championship- EURO

1982

UEFA Women’s U-21 Championship *

1997

UEFA Women’s U-19 Championship

1998

UEFA Women’s U-17 Championship

2007

* Since 1998, "19 Years Old" began to be held in.

 

Figure 5.  The football organizations of UEFA at the level of women's national teams and their commencement years

 image005

The football organizations made by UEFA at the level of men’s and women's national teams and their commencement years are shown in Table 11.

 

Table 11. The Commencement Years of the organizations of UEFA at the level of men’s and women's national teams

 Name of the Organization

Starting the Year

Men’s national teams and their commencement years

1958

Women's national teams and their commencement years

1982

 

“Inter-Cities Fairs Cup" participated by the teams of the cities hosting trade fairs was commenced by UEFA in 1955-1956 football season. Upon the incensement of the participation in the event, the event’s status was changed, and it was named “UEFA Cup” in 1971–1972 season. With intent to enable UEFA Cup to reach the standards of Champions League, radical changes were made in team status in 2009. As from 2009-2010 season, it began to be organized under the name of “UEFA European League”.

“UEFA Champions League” was commenced in 1992–1993 season, 36 years after the organization of Champion Clubs Cup. Champions League is the most important organization among the 19 organization made by UEFA.

European Cup Winners' Cup organized in 1960-1961 football season for the first time was combined with "UEFA Cup" in 1999-2000 football season, by considering the decreasing interest of the people caused by the large number of the matches played at the level of clubs.

UEFA Intertoto Cup has been the only football organization that has not any final, champion and cup  (see www.uefa.com).

 

The club team football organizations made by UEFA, and their commencement years are shown in Table 12 and Figure 6.

 

Table 12. Men’s club team football organizations made by UEFA, and their commencement years

 Name of the Organization

Starting the Year

UEFA Inter-Cities Fairs Cup *

1955

UEFA European Champions Clubs’ Cup

1955

UEFA European Cup Winners' Cup **

1960

UEFA Cup

1971

UEFA Super Cup

1972

UEFA Champions League

1992

UEFA Intertoto Cup***

1995

UEFA Europa League

2009

*Was named the UEFA Cup in 1971.

 

** Not organized since 2000.

 

***Not organized since 2008.

 

 

 

Figure 6.  Men’s club team organizations made by UEFA, and their commencement years

 image006

UEFA Women's Cup attended by champion teams of the countries was organized by UEFA in 2001 for the first time. This organization was named UEFA Women's Champions League in 2009 (see www.uefa.com).

 

The women’s club teams football organizations made by UEFA, and their commencement years are shown in Table 13 and Figure 7.

 

 

Table 13.  The Commencement years of UEFA Women's Club Teams Organizations

 Name of the Organization

Starting the Year

UEFA Women’s Cup*

2001

UEFA Womens Champions League

2009

*In 2009, "Women's Champions League" was the name.

 

Figure 7. The Commencement years of UEFA Women's Club Teams Organizations

 image007

The men’s and women’s club teams football organizations made by UEFA, and their commencement years are shown in Table 14.

 

Table 14 The Commencement years of UEFA Men’s and Women's Club Teams Organizations

 Name of the Organization

Starting the Year

UEFA Men’s Club Teams Organizations

1955

 UEFA Women's Club Teams Organizations

2001

 

The commencement years of the football organizations of the men’s and women’s club teams made by UEFA shown in Table 15.

 

Table 15  The Commencement years of  the Organizations of UEFA Men’s and Women's Champions League

 Name of the Organization

Starting the Year

UEFA Men's Champions League

1992

 UEFA Women's Champions League

2000

 

 

CONCLUSION

 

Despite the “Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women - CEDAW”, designed and adopted by the United Nations in 1979 in such a way as to enable women to actively participate in sports and physical education activities equally with men; equal opportunities for women in football have unfortunately been created too late by the FIFA, UEFA and International Olympic Committee. The year differences determined between the men's and women's football organizations are as follows:

 

Men's football was officially included in the Olympic Games in 1908 for the first time, and the women's football was officially included in the Olympic Games in 1996 for the first time, i.e.  88 years later than men’s football organization (Figure 8).

 

 

Figure 8.  The Commencement Years of Men’s and Women’s Olympic Football Organizations

 image008

Men's World Cup was organized by FIFA in 1930 for the first time, and Women's World Cup was organized in 1991 i.e. 61 years later.Kadınlar Dünya Kupası ile erkekler Dünya Kupası organizasyonu arasında 61 yıl fark vardır.There are 61 years between Women's World Cup organizations and Men's World Cup organizations (Figure 9).

 

 

Figure 9.  The Commencement Years of Men’s and Women’s FIFA World Cup Organizations

 image009

The first Under-20 Men's Football organization was made in 1977, and the first Under-20 Women’s Football organization was made in 2002. 20 Yaş Altı kadınlar ve erkekler futbol organizasyonları arasında 25 yıl ara vardır. There are 25 years between the first Under-20 Men's Football organizations and the first Under-20 Women’s Football organizations (Figure 10). 

 

 Figure 10.  FIFA U-20 World Cup Organizations

 image010

The first Under-17 Men's Football organizations were made in 1985, and the first Under-17 Women’s Football organization was made in 2008.  17 Yaş Altı kadınlar ve erkekler futbol organizasyonları arasında 23 yıl fark vardır. There are 23 years between the first Under-17 Men's Football organizations and the first Under-17 Women’s Football organizations (Figure 11).

 

 

Figure 11.  FIFA U-17 World Cup Organizations

 image011

For the first time, the Youth Olympic Football organizations were made by FIFA for both men and women in the same year, without gender discrimination (Figure 12).

 

 

Figure 12.  The Commencement Years of the Youth Olympic Football Organizations

 image012

The first Men's European Championship was organized by UEFA in 1958, and Women's European Championship was held in 1982. There are 24 years between the Men's and Women’s European Championship organizations (Figure 13).

 

 

Figure 13.  The Commencement Years of the UEFA Organizations for Men’s and Women's National Teams

 image013

The first men's club team organization of UEFA was made in 1955, and the first Women's European Championship was held 46 years later in 2001 (Figure 14).

 

 

Figure 14. The Commencement Years of the UEFA Organizations for Men’s and Women's Club Teams

 image014

Men’s Champions League was started by UEFA in 1992, and Women's Champions League was started in 2008, instead of Women's Cup. There are 16 years between Men’s Champions League and Women's Champions League Figure 15).

 

 

Figure 15.  The Commencement Years of the UEFA Organizations for Men’s and Women's Champions League

 image015

All the football events organized by FIFA and UEFA until 2010 had been made for men first. Small number of teams does not pose an obstacle for organizing an event, and besides, it reflects the approaches and perspectives regarding the subject. For those who assert that there is not adequate number of teams in women’s football, we can give some examples such as the facts that men’s football was included in the Olympic Games with 3 teams, between the years 1900 and 1904, even if they were for the purpose of demonstration; football officially participated in the games with 6 teams in 1908; and the first World Cup was held with only 13 teams.   

 

For the first time, the Youth Olympic Football organizations were made by FIFA in 2010 for both men and women in the same year, without gender discrimination. This shows the fact that today equal plans are being made for women and men organizations.

 

In addition, FIFA and UEFA are required to utilize and distribute all the economical sources equally for men and women. The condition for a sustainable anthropocentric development in also football is the creation of a partnership between women and men based on equality.

 

 

REFERENCES

 

Bebel, A., (1978). Kadın ve Sosyalizm, (Çeviri:Sabiha Zekeriya Sertel), Toplum Yayınevi, İstanbul.

 

Bensadon, N., (1994). Başlangıcından Günümüze Kadın Hakları (Çeviri: Şirin Tekeli), Cep Üniversitesi, İletişim Yayınları, İstanbul.

 

Cedaw, (1979). Birleşmiş Milletlerce 1979’da kabul edilen “Kadınlara Karşı Her Türlü Ayrımcılığın Önlenmesi Sözleşmesi”.

 

Demirbilek, S., (2007). Cinsiyet Ayrımcılığının Sosyolojik Açıdan İncelenmesi. Finans Politik & Ekonomik Yorumlar, 44, ss. 12-25 

 

Koca, C., & Bulgu, N. (2005). Spor ve toplumsal cinsiyet: Genel bir bakış. Toplum ve Bilim Dergisi, 103. 

 

Koray, M., (1994). Türkiye’de Kadınlar, Türkiye Sosyal Ekonomik Siyasal Araştırmalar Vakfı, Türkiye’nin Sorunları Dizisi-4, Yeni Yüzyıl Kitaplığı.

 

Michel, A., (1994). Feminizm (Çeviren: Şirin Tekeli), Cep Üniversitesi, İletişim Yayınları, Preses Universitaires de France.

 

Orta, L., (2000). “FIFA Dünya Kupası Finallerinin Analitik Olarak İncelenmesi”, Gazi Üniversitesi BESYO 1. Ulusal Beden Eğitimi ve Spor Bilimleri Kongresi, Cilt 2, s.227-239, 2000, Ankara.

 

Orta, L., (2000). “Futbolda Bayanlar Dünya Kupası ile Erkekler Dünya Kupasının Karşılaştırılarak İncelenmesi”, Gazi Üniversitesi BESYO 1. Ulusal Beden Eğitimi ve Spor Bilimleri Kongresi, 26-27 Mayıs 2000, Ankara.

 

Orta, L., Akşar, T., Beşiktaş, Y., (2012). Analytical Study Of The Uefa European Football Championship, İİB International Refereed Academic Social Sciences Journal, Volume: 03, Issue:07.

 

Parlaktuna, İ., (2010). Türkiye’de Cinsiyete Dayalı Mesleki Ayrımcılığın Analizi (Analysis of Gender-Based Occupational Discrimination in Turkey), Ege Akademik Bakış, Cilt: 10, Sayı:4 Ekim 2010, ss. 1218.

 

Sport and Gender, (2005). Empowering Girls and Women, Chapter 4, Source: UNDP, Taking Gender Equality Seriously.

 

www.fifa.org

 

www.uefa.com

 

www.olympic.org

Bu İçerik  2329  Defa Okunmuştur
 

Degerli yazarimiz Lale Orta Pazartesi, 14 Kasım 2011.

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Neden Futbol Ekonomisi?

 

www. Futbolekonomi.com’un  vizyon ve misyonu temel olarak  Futbol Ekonomisi Stratejik Araştırma Merkezi’nin (FESAM) vizyon ve misyonuna paralel ve aynı düzlemdedir.

 

Bu bağlamda temel misyonumuz: Futbolun yerel ve küresel makro özelliklerini incelemek ve yeni yapısal modeller önermek; bu kapsamda entelektüel gelişimi hızlandırmak ve buna ilişkin referans olabilecek bir database oluşturmak ve bunu tüm futbol araştırmacılarının emrine sunmak... Bu amaçla yapılan çalışmaları yayımlamak; gerekli her türlü bilimsel futbol araştırma ve geliştirme projelerine entelektüel anlamda destek vermek.

 

Temel Vizyonumuz: Önerilen yeni modellerin gerçekleştiğini görmektir.

 devamı >>>

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TÜRKİYE BÜYÜK MİLLET MECLİSİ

Spor Kulüplerinin Sorunları ile

Sporda Şiddet Sorununun Araştırılarak

Alınması Gereken Önlemlerin

Belirlenmesi Amacıyla Kurulan

 

MECLİS ARAŞTIRMASI

KOMİSYONU

RAPORU

tugrulaksar_ge_roportaj

Tuğrul Akşar Güngör Urasın sorularını yanıtlıyor

  Yazar Tuğrul Akşar,
Milliyet Gazetesi Yazarı Güngör Uras'ın
sorularını yanıtlıyor.
detay için tıklayınız..

 

e- Bülten Üyeliği

E-Bülten listemize üye olmak için lütfen aşağıdaki alanları doldurunuz.

Spor Endexi

23.09.2014 Kapanış Günlük
Değişim %
  IMKB 100

76.668

-0,26

 bjk BJKAS

2,70

1,89

 fb FENER

34,60

-0,14

 gs GSRAY

21,15

-0,24

 trabzon TSPOR 4,48

-1,75

       

Videolar

Tuğrul, Tuğrul Akşar, Pusula, Ekonomi, Futbol, Futbol Ekonomi, Mali,VİDEONUN DEVAMI VE DİĞER VİDEOLAR İÇİN TIKLAYIN.

İstatistikler

İçerik Tıklama Görünümü : 4761310

Spor Toto Süper Lig 2014-15 Puan Durumu

Spor Toto Süper Lig 2014-15 Puan Durumu

   TAKIMLAR O G B M A Y AV P
1 AKHİSAR BLD.SPOR  3  2  1   0  6  4   2   7
2 FENERBAHÇE  3  2  1  0  4  2  0  7
3 BEŞİKTAŞ  3  2  1  0  3  1  2  7
4 KASIMPAŞA  3  1  2  0  5  4  1  5
5 GENÇLERBİRLİĞİ  3  1  1  1  4  3

 1

 4
6 MERSİN İDMAN YUR.  3  1  1  1  4  3  1  4
7 TORKU KONYASPOR  3  1  1  1  3  2  1  4
8 GAZİANTEPSPOR  3  1  1  1  4  4  0  4
9 GALATASARAY  3  1  1  1

 2

 2  0  4
10

ESKİŞEHİRSPOR

 3  1  1  1  2  3  -1  4
11 İST.BAŞAKŞEHİR  3  0  3  0  2  2  0  3
12 TRABZONSPOR  3  0  3  0  1  1  0  3
13 BALIKESİRSPOR  3  1  0  2  3  4  -1  3
14 BURSASPOR  3  1  0  2  2  4  -2  3
15 KAYSERİ ERCİYES  3  0  2  1  3  4  -1  2
16 SİVASSPOR  3  0  2  1  3  4  -1  2
17 ÇAYKUR RİZESPOR  3  0  2  1  2  4

 -2

 2
18

KDÇ.KARABÜKSPOR

 3  0  1  2  3  5  -2  1

OKUR - YAZAR


Futbolun ekonomisi, mali, hukuksal ve yönetsel kısmına ilişkin varsa makalelerinizi bize gönderin, sizin imzanızla yayınlayalım.

Yazılarınızı  info@futbolekonomi.com adresine gönderebilirsiniz. 

 

 

2016 Avrupa Şampiyonası Elemeleri A Grubu Puan Cetveli
 Takımlar  O  G  B  M  A  Y  P
 1.İZLANDA  1  1  0  0  3  0  3
 2.ÇEK CUMHURİYETİ  1  1  0  0  2  1  3
 3.KAZAKİSTAN  1  0  1  0  0  0  1
 4.LETONYA  1  0 1  0  0  0  1
 5.HOLLANDA  1  0  0  1 1  2  0
 6.TÜRKİYE  1  0 0  1  0  3  0

 

deloitte

Avrupa Futbolunun 2012 yılı toplam gelirleri finansal  özet için tıklayınız

Money Football League

    

Deloitte-2014

 

2012-13 Sezonu Deloitte Para Ligi'nde ilk defa iki Türk takımı...Galatasaray ve Fenerbahçe gelirleriyle Dünyanın en zengin yirmi kulübü arasına girdi!
  2013-para-ligi-raporu

 


Deloitte Para Ligi ve Arkasındaki Gerçekler

 


 

2011-2012-para-ligi-raporu

 

 


   

Endustriyel_futbol

 

Futbolda Endüstriyel Denge ve Başarı Üzerine

Futbolun Endüstriyel gelişimi, kulüplerin sportif ve iktisadi/mali yapılanışını derinden etkiliyor. Dorukhan Acar’ın Kurumsal Yönetim temelli yaklaşımı ile "Futbolda Endüstriyel Denge ve Başarı"yı okumak için klikleyiniz

 

 

Türkiye'de Kadın Futbolunun Gelişimi ve Günümüzdeki Durumu

 

imagesCAVM4O4L

 

Dr. Lale ORTA’nın Kadın Futboluna Entelektüel Bir Yaklaşım Sergilediği makalesi için tıklayınız.” 

 

 

İngiliz Futbolunda Kurumsal Yönetişim Üzerine

 

governance_in_football

 

Tüm kulüplerimize ve Türk Futbol yapılanmasına farklı bir bakış açısı kazandırabileceğini düşündüğümüz, İngiliz Parlementosu’nun Kültür, medya ve spor Komitesi’nin hazırladığı raporu okumak için tıklayınız.